G'day, Mate! Paul says, "Take a butcher's hook at our Australian Dingo Lingo!"

Aboriginie - the original Australian; "Good Fella's mate."
Aerial ping pong - Australian Rules Football
Ankle Biters - your kids
Apples - in good order, under control - "Everything's apples!"
Aristotle - a bottle of beer
Arthur or Martha - a state of confusion. "You'll freeze your knackers off swimming in that lake. When you get out, you won't know if you're Arthur or Martha!"
Aussie - an Australian
Australian salute - movement of the hand brushing away flies

Bag of fruit - a man's suit (rhyming slang)
Banana Bender - Queenslander (used with caution, if at all, in Queensland)
Barbie - a barbecue (grill)
Barney - a dispute or argument. To have a barney or blue.
Barrack - to cheer for a sports team, or indulge in noisy comment.
Billabong - a lake or pond remaining in the bed of an otherwise dried up stream.
Bite - to borrow money, "bite merchant" - a persistent borrower. "He put the bite on me."
Black Stump - a loose standard of comparison. A mythical landmark signaling the last outpost of civilization - "He's the greatest bull artist this side of the Black Stump."
Bloke - the man in charge
Bloody - Literally, "gory." Otherwise, the Greatest Australian Adjective quite commonly used by both sexes, especially to lend emphasis to a point - "He's a bloody beauty."
Bludge/Bludger - to avoid effect and live by someone else's exertions; to get something without paying - one who bludges.
Blue - an argument or brawl. Also, a mistake of someone with red hair.
Bo-Peep - to take a look at
Boofhead - a stupid person, a fathead
Boomerang - Aboriginal hunting stick that returns to an experienced thrower; "It's a boomerang, mate; bring it back."
Breezer - a fart
Brown Bomber - Sydney parking police (these days they have changed their brown uniforms for grey ones, i.e., "grey ghosts"
Bruce - a name applied by the English to the Australian male.
Buckley's Choice - no chance at all - "He's got Buckley's of winning."
Bull Artist - liar, braggart's also "booze artist" - an excessive drinker of alcohol
Bull Roarer - Aboriginal hunting instrument; when swung around head, the sound attracts animals.
Bull ranger - an outback bloke who understands the bushman's lifestyle
Butcher's Hook - a look at something

Cackleberries - eggs; sometimes called hen fruit, or otherwise known as "Bum Nutts". 
Captain Cook - have a look (rhyming slang)
Cashed Up - well supplied with money
Chair - "to be in the chair" means to be the one responsible for a round of drinks.
Cheese and Kisses - missus (rhyming slang for wife)
Chewie - chewing gum
China Plate - a mate (rhyming slang)
Chooks - chickens - "I hope all your chooks turn into emus and kick down your dunny door!" (considered a mild retort)
Cobber - a friend
Come the Raw Prawn - to impose on, try to deceive someone - "Don't come the raw prawn with me, mate."
Copper - Victorian police
Crow Eater - a South Australian
Cossie - swimming costume

Dead Horse - sauce (rhyming slang), especially tomato
Didgeridoo - Aboriginal musical instrument made from a hollowed-out eucalyptus branch
Digger - originally a miner, now an Australian soldier
Dinkum Pil - reliable information
Dob In - betray, inform, tell on
Doover - a thingumebob, whatyamacallit, tryanthewontigogn, Anything at all.
Drongo - a simpleton or fool
Dunny - country outhouse - "All alone like a country dunny."
Durrie - a cigarette

Ear Basher - a persistent talker, one who talks too much
Extra Grouse - extraordinarily good, fantastic, excellent

Fair Dinkum - absolutely true,genuine
Fizzer - anything which disappoints expectations
Flyer - a swiftly moving kangaroo; a half-grown kangaroo

Galah - gray-backed, pink-breasted parrot or a sully person
Give it a Burl - try it, make an attempt.
Good oh - expression of agreement of approval; a state of well-being
Grog on - to continue steady drinking
Grog up - as for "beer up"
Grouse - good, outstanding - "This tucker's extra grouse."

Hard Yakka - hard work
Horray, hoo roo - Goodbye, so long, farewell

Illywacker - a professional trickster
Inked - drunk, incapacitated

Jackaroo - a young ranch man Male version of a jilleroo.
Jake - all right, in good order, "She's jake, mate."
Jilleroo - a young female ranch hand
Joe Blake - a snake
Joey - baby kangaroo
Jumbuck - a sheep. Aboriginal for "mist" or "white cloud"

Kick the tin - to make a contribution
Kiss and ride - when a woman drops her husband off at work, keeps the car for use during the day, and picks him up at night.
Knuckle Sandwich - punch in the mouth - "How'd you like a knuckle sandwich?" (not to be used casually).
Kookaburra - snake-eating bird

Larrikin - a young - often rowdy - tough, with an implication of dash of style as well as toughness.
Lashings - plenty; used to describe large quantities of food or drink.
Lollywater - soft drink

Mate - a friend - equivalent of "buddy", also cobber, sport.
Message stick - Aboriginal petroglyph painting

Narked - peeved, angry; "Wot are you narked about?"
Ned Kelly - famous Australian outlaw; bushranger hunk in the old Melbourne jail, c. 1890; Australia's favorite son; folk hero
Nipper - small child
Noah's Ark - a shark (rhyming slang)

Oil - reliable information. "You're okay, that's why I'm giving you the good oil."
Oilskin - drover's coat
Outback - the region remote from the settled districts/cities
Outlaw - wanted by the coppers

Paralytic - very drunk to the extent of hardly being able to move.
Pissant around - to mess around.
Possie - chosen position or spot.
Prang - car smash
Prezzie - a present; "I bought you a lot of prezzies."

Raferty's Rules - no rules at all.
Razoo - worth nothing - "Not worth a brass razoo.", or no money at all.
Ropeable - very angry or irritated - "The missus was ropable when I came home last night."
Rort - a rowdy party

Sandgroupers - nickname for West Australians.
Sanger - a sandwich
Session - a period of steady drinking
Sheila - a girl or woman (sometimes, but not usually, regarded as derogatory).
Shindig - a party or celebration
Shout - to buy drinks for others or stand any similar treat
Skite - to boast or brag
Sundowner - rural tramp or swagman. Originally, one who would dodge working for his food by arriving at a station or ranch in time for dinner.
Sunnies - sunglasses
Sydney or the Bush - all or nothing.

Ta - thank you.
Tassie - a Tasmanian
The Drum - straight, honest information
Tin Lid or Billy Lid - rhyming slang for kid, child - "Bring your Billy Lid."
Tinnie - can of beer.
Tube - bottle of beer.
Two-Pot Screamer - someone very susceptible to alcohol, a "two but drunk."

Vegemite - a salty-tasting spread for sandwiches

Walloper - a policeman

Ziff - a beard